Zhao Shilin the two major breakthroughs in the history of human civilization dxperience

Zhao Shilin: two great spirit of human civilization history breakthrough [Abstract] Wen Yiduo once described the axis of the spirit of the times breakthrough: human stumble in the course of evolution in the number of million years, the four ancient peoples of modern civilization suddenly the biggest influence the deep – Chinese India, Israel, Greece, all at the same time fierce look up, taking the step. The author: Zhao Shilin (Minzu University of China professor of philosophy and religion, the modernization of Chinese) suffered repeated setbacks, dogged by bad luck, from the perspective of the history of ideas, the reason is that the Chinese nation has not yet completed modernization needs spiritual breakthrough. The so-called spiritual breakthrough, refers to the value orientation, the spiritual direction of the fundamental breakthrough or fundamental transformation, the ideological system of deconstruction and reconstruction. In this sense, the history of human civilization has gone through two major spiritual breakthroughs, one is the ancient axis breakthrough, a modern secular breakthrough. The so-called axis breakthrough, that is, the so-called axis of the spirit of Jaspers’s breakthrough, it is the first major breakthrough in the history of human civilization. This is from the age of barbarism to civilization, from the age of mythology to the philosophy of the spirit of the times breakthrough. The spirit of the breakthrough is that the world’s major cultural types are the birth of their main cultural representatives and ideas. For example, Chinese was born Confucius, Lao Tzu, Mo-tse, the birth of the Hebrew prophets, the Buddha was born in India, the Greek philosopher Socrates was born Platon Aristotle. The human mind later around these axis begins to rotate, formed a Ministry of the surge high and sweep forward ideological and cultural history. China appeared in the pre Qin period all the pomp of contention of a hundred schools of thought. The picture shows the Chinese painting, "Confucius asked Li Yu Lao Zi". Mr. Wen Yiduo had a vivid description of the axis of the spirit of the times breakthrough: "human beings stumble in the course of evolution in the number of million years, the four ancient peoples of modern civilization suddenly the biggest influence the deep – Chinese India, Israel, Greece, at the same time the rise of Meng, taking the step." (the "literary history trend") if the first human spiritual breakthrough out of savagery, entering the era of civilization. Then the second spiritual breakthrough, so that mankind out of the ancient civilization, into the modern civilization, and open to the modernization process. The second spiritual breakthrough occurred mainly in the Western Christian world, about the time from thirteenth Century to eighteenth Century, it is a course of thought throughout the Renaissance to the enlightenment, is from the divine to human rights, from the aristocracy to civilians, from agricultural society to industrial society, the breakthrough, so called "secular breakthrough". It also takes some thought giant as a symbol, · from Bacon, Rock, Petrarch, Adam; Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau Smith, to the pinnacle of Kant’s enlightenment…… The philosopher’s dinner for painter Jean · Hubel · Voltaire’s works, the right number of third is the French "Encyclopedia" editor Diderot Denis ·. The completion of the second spiritual breakthrough enabled the western society to realize the transformation from the ancient civilization to the modern civilization. Freedom, equality, democracy, rule of law, human rights, market economy, such as the separation of church and state of modern civilization and political standards,.相关的主题文章: